Many people ask, “Is alcohol a depressant?” Given its sometimes confusing and contradictory effects, you’d be forgiven for not really knowing the answer. Is it a stimulant? Alcohol is able to cause effects common to both kinds of drugs but it’s a central nervous system depressant.
Is Alcohol a Depressant? Only After Being a Stimulant
Many people know that alcohol is a depressant. However, what many don’t know is that, at lower doses, alcohol can actually have the opposite effect. At lower doses, alcohol acts as a stimulant. It increases activity in the central nervous system, causing the person to feel more awake and alert. Therefore, it decreases reaction time and intelligence.
At the lowest doses, alcohol causes what is commonly called a “buzz.” The drinker experiences an increase in heart rate and a feeling of well-being. Some people even become more talkative and social when they drink alcohol in low doses.
This effect is why the drug is popular at social gatherings, parties, and any other event where people come together. Alcohol acts as a dis-inhibitor, relieving the anxiety people feel when they interact with strangers and other people.
However, this effect slowly begins to wear off as more alcohol is consumed. At that point, alcohol begins to act differently.
When Is Alcohol a Depressant?
At higher doses, alcohol acts as a depressant. In fact, the depressant effects of alcohol on the brain are well known. When consumed in large quantities, alcohol can cause a person to feel sluggish and uncoordinated. It can also affect a person’s ability to think clearly and make good decisions. Additionally, alcohol can impact a person’s mood, making them feel sad or angry. In extreme cases, alcohol can even lead to blackouts, where a person will lose all memory of what happened while they were intoxicated.
It reduces activity in the central nervous system, causing the person to slow down and become relaxed. Therefore, it increases reaction time and decreases intelligence.
At the highest doses, alcohol causes what is commonly called alcohol poisoning. The drinker experiences nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and clamminess. At even higher doses, alcohol can slow breathing to the point of unconsciousness or death.
It’s important to know that the effects of alcohol depend on the dose. That is, the more you drink, the greater the effects of alcohol will be. Additionally, everyone reacts to alcohol differently. Some people may be more susceptible to the negative effects of alcohol than others.
Individual Differences In Alcohol Processing
As with all drugs, different people react to alcohol in different ways. Not only do people display different tolerance levels but they seem to have entirely different emotional reactions to alcohol.
A proportion of people react to alcohol consumption with increased irritability and anger. These people tend to get into arguments and fights while drinking. Also, they can sometimes become violent with loved ones or friends. This reaction to alcohol is particularly dangerous, and there is an association with criminal or assaultive behavior.
Some people are particularly prone to experience alcohol’s stimulating and euphoriant effects. They become happy and gregarious when consuming alcohol. These are the people who can seemingly “dance the night away” at parties and social events.
Finally, many people are susceptible to alcohol’s depressant effects. They become relaxed, even sleepy when drinking. These folks sometimes have higher tolerances than others, which may explain why they primarily feel the depressant effects of alcohol. After all, these effects only become apparent at higher doses of the drug.
San Antonio Recovery Center Can Help
Alcohol can create severe problems in the lives of problem drinkers and their loved ones. We at the San Antonio Recovery Center (SARC) believe that affordable, comprehensive care for alcoholics is realizable. Because we aim to treat the whole person, physically, mentally, emotionally, and spiritually, we offer a wide range of programs and treatments, including:
- Residential treatment and inpatient rehabilitation: Our 28-day residential program provides a safe, structured environment for recovery. Clients live on-site and participate in intensive individual and group counseling sessions.
- Intensive outpatient programs: For those with less severe alcohol dependence or who have completed inpatient treatment, we offer outpatient programs with both group and individual counseling.
- 90-day treatment: For those who need a longer-term treatment program, we have 90-day programs with residential and outpatient options.
- Aftercare program: To support ongoing sobriety, we offer free aftercare programs including support groups and counseling.
- Family counseling: Alcoholism affects the whole family, so we provide counseling and education for family members to help them understand the disease and how best to support their loved one’s recovery.
- Individual counseling: We provide one-on-one counseling with licensed therapists to address any underlying issues related to alcohol use and build coping strategies and skills for avoiding relapse.
- Group therapy: Led by licensed counselors, our group therapy sessions allow clients to connect with others facing similar challenges and find support and accountability.
Don’t Wait To Seek Treatment
If alcohol creates problems in your life or the life of a loved one, please don’t hesitate to call us at 866.957.7885. We would love to talk to you. We can answer questions like, “Is alcohol a depressant or a stimulant?” and give you information about how to make your life better today.